Dibrugarh: A Gateway Town

Situated on the banks of the Brahmaputra River and established in 1842, Dibrugarh [pronounced dib-roo-GOR] isn’t a primary travel destination but it can certainly be an excellent gateway to explore the northeastern corner of Assam and the neighboring states of Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland. Direct flights from Dibrugarh connects Agartala and Imphal, the state capitals of Tripura and Manipur.

Planes and trains connect Dibrugarh to and from several Indian cities. The closest cities are Guwahati and Kolkata [formerly Calcutta]. There are various options for hotels in Dibrugarh, but not all might meet the requirements of a high-end traveler. Homestays are another option, in addition to specialized accommodations in a tea estate.

Winter is cold and summer is hot and humid. The monsoon falls between June and September. My recommendation is to visit Dibrugarh between December and February. During these three months, nighttime temperatures range between 47-55 degrees Fahrenheit and daytime temperatures are pleasant, hovering around 70 degrees Fahrenheit.

Historically

Historically, Dibrugarh was an important administrative, strategic, and unique educational town. For example:

  • From an administrative perspective, Dibrugarh was made the headquarters of the district in 1840.
  • From a military standpoint, the British and the Americans made the region its strategic outpost.
  • From an educational perspective, the first school for girls in the region was established in 1885, followed by the first medical institution in Northeast India in 1901.

Even though Dibrugarh is a primary town for the region, urbanization brought its challenges—unplanned construction, worsening water quality, air and noise pollution, lack of waste management—and the struggle to maintain its unique past. Amidst these challenges lies opportunities. Efforts are being made by the current administration to take on those challenges faced by the town. Coupled with those efforts is this Pxley story encouraging you to explore the original township of Dibrugarh.

The Brahmaputra

If you fly into Dibrugarh, the Brahmaputra River comes into view as your aircraft begins its descent. Rice paddies and tea estates reveal a green landscape, depending on the month of your visit. The Brahmaputra River can average between 3 to 5 miles in width near Dibrugarh. Several agencies [Government of India, state government, USAID] have made attempts since 1934 to stabilize the river due to the continued erosion of its banks that impacts the lives of many. There are several stone and timber posts along with dikes that have been put in place to protect the town of Dibrugarh, a portion of which was submerged under the river due to erosion of the river banks.

Tea Estates

Dibrugarh is surrounded by rice paddies and tea estates. I highly recommend a visit to a tea estate. A few provide options to stay overnight, including a visit to a tea factory. If you are visiting Dibrugarh during the months of December through February, most tea estates are in maintenance mode. This means you won’t see a tea factory in operation. If you want to purchase tea to bring back to family and friends, I recommend the Tea Centre store. Note: The first flush [“flush” refers to tea leaves picked from individual growth periods] provides bolder tea but lacks a little in flavor. The second flush has more flavor. I prefer whole leaf teas but your preference might lean towards broken leaf, fannings, CTC, or dust grades tea.

Historic Buildings

A few historic buildings and sites in Dibrugarh should be on your must-see list. Some of these are: a) Assam Medical College [formerly Berry White Medical School; established 1900]; b) Bar Library [formerly McWilliam Hall]; and c) British Cemetery [built in 1862 and final resting ground of 103 British nationals]. Attempts have been made by local, state, and national governments and organizations to restore and improve historical buildings and sites. These investments can become a good source for knowledge-sharing and revenue generation, and much remains to be seen how such outcomes can be achieved.

Home Visit

If you have the opportunity to visit an Assamese home in a nearby village, do so. Traditionally, houses were constructed of mud-plastered bamboo for walls and a thatched roof. Given the prevailing geological and topographical settings, Assam-type architecture is meant to be earthquake-proof. Homes in villages had a loom and a dheki, a foot pounder for husking grains.

A homestay in Dibrugarh I can recommend is Bhaskar Home Stay. They won't have a loom or dheki at their modern premises but your stay will be secure and pleasant, and they might be able to recommend a home visit in a nearby village.

Ceremonies

Traditional Assamese ceremonies, unlike any seen in other parts of India, provide a glimpse into the particular culture of the region. There are two primary cultural and religious institutions that influence the fabric of Assamese culture: satras and nāmghar. Satras started in Assam during the 15th-16th centuries and propagated a form of Vaishnavism. Vaishnavism [a set of traditions that adheres to the worship of god Vishnu] emphasizes equality for all people instead of the Varna [caste] system that divides society into four hierarchical classes. A nāmghar is the central structure of a satra. In the Assamese language, nāmghar means nām [prayer] and ghar [house]. A nāmghar is also a community hall and an arts and crafts learning center. If your schedule permits, I recommend a visit to Majuli that I believe is one of the last bastions that preserve tribal and indigenous Assamese traditions in their original form. [Note: View a video excerpt from a traditional ceremony held in Dibrugarh.]

Cuisine

You can always fall back on a KFC or Domino’s Pizza but discovering the local foods of a region is a huge part of travel and exploration. With a bit of planning and foresight, you can learn to truly appreciate the authentic cuisine. Ask the personnel at your hotel’s front desk to recommend a place to eat. A unique opportunity would be to attend a traditional ceremony that offers maah prokhad—green gram [a green kind of bean], black chickpea, coconut, sugarcane, ginger, etc. A few unique items are: poita bhat—cooked rice kept overnight in cold water; cira—dried pounded rice; akhoi—parched husk-free rice; hurum—a type of puffed rice; sandoh guri—coarse powder of parched rice; khar—ashes of dried bark and root of plantain tree.

Textiles

It used to be common to find a loom in an Assamese house in a village. Three prominent Assamese items made on a loom are a gamusa, mekhela-sador, and a riha. A gamusa is rectangular in shape, woven on a traditional Assamese loom with white and red cotton thread. A mekhela-sador is a two-piece dress worn by women. The woven designs on a mekhela-sador generally depict traditional Assamese musical instruments, flowers, birds, etc. A riha is also worn along with a mekhela-sador on particular occasions. A shop I can recommend for a traditional mekhela-sador is Assam Fancy Silk House.

Traditional Household Items

These are miniature versions of traditional Assamese household items. The items are made out of bamboo. A jakoi is used to trap fish in the shallow ponds or rice paddies of Assam. Once a fish is caught with the help of a jakoi, it is stored in the khaloi. A kula is a winnowing fan used to separate hull [or husk] from rice after a milling process. A saloni is a sieve that can be used to separate the chaff from the kernel. A dola is a tray that can be used to store items or to sort through rice and remove any foreign objects like fragments of stones. The khorahi is a storage basket also used on occasion to wash rice.

Market

The market area in a town like Dibrugarh consists of commercial and residential spaces. Nonetheless, the general market area includes a vegetable and fruit market, fish and poultry market, and stores that sell everything from clothing to utensils to groceries. I always encourage a visit to a local market as it provides insights into the lives of the residents.

Side Trips

Dibrugarh can be an excellent gateway destination to its neighboring towns and states. Here are a few that can be a part of your visit to Dibrugarh:

a) Namphake: Assamese culture derives its roots from Tibeto-Burman, Austro-Asiatic, and Indo-Aryan ethno-cultural groups. A visit to the Namphake village illustrates how the Tai-Phake, an offshoot of the Tai race, found its place in Assam. The community worships Lord Buddha. In addition to a monastery, pagoda, and Ashoka pillar, a water tank has a statue of a meditating Buddha protected by a snake with its hood. The monastery is run by Buddhist monks and local villagers help in any manner possible.

b) Digboi: The first crude oil well in Asia was drilled in Digboi, located 50 miles east of Dibrugarh. As a child I remember hearing the fable of how Digboi got its name — “Dig boy, dig.” — which is how the British engineers encouraged laborers as they dug for crude oil. The town has several unique bungalows that catered to the Britain professionals working for the Assam Oil Company. The Digboi War Cemetery is the resting ground for the fallen Indian and British soldiers during World War II. Several of the marked graves date soldiers that died between 1939 and 1945. Fifteen miles from Digboi brings you to a small town called Ledo, which is the starting point of Ledo Road [aka Stilwell Road] that was built by American and British troops during World War II as a supply route to China through Burma.

c) Sivasagar: Located 50 miles southwest of Dibrugarh is the town of Sivasagar, the capital of the Ahom Kingdom from 1699 to 1788. Visit some of the monuments from the Ahom Kingdom in and around Sivasagar, including Charaideo that has a collection of maidams [tumuli or burial mounds] of the Ahom kings and royalty. A little known fact about Indian history is that the Ahoms defeated the Mughals in 18 major conflicts [between 1615 through 1682] and the Battle of Itakhuli in 1682 saw a decisive Ahom victory that resulted in the Mughal retreat.

Other opportunities to explore the region are a visit to the Kaziranga National Park, a 7-10 day river cruise on the Brahmaputra River, Hornbill Festival in the state of Nagaland, and a hidden gem—the state of Arunachal Pradesh.

Pxley Extra: The following is a video excerpt from a traditional ceremony held in Dibrugarh, Assam.

A few interesting facts about Dibrugarh:

  • Dibrugarh was part of the Chutia kingdom until 1523.
  • The Dibrugarh Court was established in 1840.
  • Dibrugarh Govt. Boys’ Higher Secondary School was established in 1840.
  • Earliest known watercolour of the Brahmaputra River in Dibrugarh. The Burhampootra & Tibet mountains from Dibrooghur, Assam, by Edward Augustus Prinsep, dated c.1848.
  • Dibrugarh was declared a township in 1868.
  • The first school for girls, Government Girls Higher Secondary School, was established in 1885.
  • The Times of Assam, the first news weekly in the region, was published in 1895.
  • Assam Medical College [formerly Berry White Medical School] established in 1900 was the first medical institution in Northeast India.
  • During World War II, Dibrugarh was a military base and transit camp for evacuees from Burma. [Note: Read about “A Glimpse of Dinjan, Assam.”]

Majuli: Reflections of a Native Assamese

Majuli reminds me of the Assam [in northeast India] of my childhood—isolated and amiable. Few places in Assam possess such an allure of a not too distant past. Majuli [pronounced mah-joo-lee] could also be one of the last bastions at preserving tribal and indigenous Assamese traditions in its original form.

Surrounded by the Brahmaputra River and its tributaries, Majuli is the largest riverine island in the world. Life in Majuli appears idyllic but the hardships the inhabitants face due to the monsoon floods and silt deposits seem demanding.

Majuli is home to 22 satras [monasteries] while some others have moved off the island due to soil erosion. Satras started in Assam during the 15th-16th century and propagate a form of Vaishnavism [a set of traditions that adheres to the worship of god Vishnu] that emphasizes equality for all people instead of the Varna [caste] system that divides society into four hierarchical classes.

Getting There

From any major city in India, fly into Jorhat or Dibrugarh, Assam, and on the following day, get an early morning start en route to Mājuli. Both Jorhat and Dibrugarh have ample facilities for lodging but don’t expect four-star rated accommodations.

Be careful driving in the early morning fog. Winter temperatures will range from low to mid-40℉ up to low-60℉. There is no central heating in homes and hotels; layer up for the day. I recommend at least two days to explore Mājuli. However, if you only have a day to spare, a reliable tour guide can help you to plan and maximize your visit.

River Crossing

Make sure you are at the correct ghat [usually a flight of steps to a river but in this instance, the dock to catch your ferry] to catch your ferry to Mājuli. Be on time, buy your tickets on the ferry, get a seat, and be prepared for late departures. You cross the river in what is referred to as either the iron or wooden ferry. The former is larger and the latter seems precarious, to say the least. While sitting inside the wooden ferry, the water level was a few inches below the window and seemed higher than the floor of the ferry. Nonetheless, this is the only and a reliable mode of transportation to reach Mājuli.

Driving on the Brahmaputra

The best months to visit Mājuli are November through April [December-January are the coolest periods]. The Brahmaputra River is mostly dry during these months. After your ferry ride, you have to drive on the dry riverbed to reach Mājuli. The riverbed is temporarily laid with dry stubbles of rice grass, which help to keep a vehicle’s tires from getting stuck in the sand. Stay on track! When the Brahmaputra is flowing at full capacity, your ferry will dock along the banks of the island.

Mājuli

Upon reaching Mājuli, it felt as though I was transferred to an idyllic tribal and Assamese village from the recent past. [Note: I recommend a visit to the Mishing tribal villages.] The roads in Mājuli are narrow, traffic is light, and pollution is minimal. The Mishing and Deori tribespeople of Mājuli build their homes on bamboo stilts being located near the riverine tracts or wetlands.

Primarily an agricultural community, rice is the main crop of Mājuli and several varieties are grown on the island. Kumol saul [tender rice, in Assamese] is a unique rice that is grown in Mājuli and can be eaten without cooking. The rice is immersed in warm water for a few minutes and eaten with plain yogurt and jaggery.

Migratory Birds

Mājuli is a biodiversity hotspot and its fertile floodplains and wetlands provide an ideal habitat for a wide range of migratory birds. Being on the Central Asia/Indian Flyway, over 200 varieties of migratory birds visit Mājuli during the winter months. Many make Mājuli their winter home while others make their way to the sea.

The Whistling Duck arrive from Siberia in September-October and throng the large ponds until March-April. The Pallas’s fish-eagle comes to breed in Mājuli. During the summer months, migratory species like the hawk-cuckoo make Mājuli their home.

The Satra

Satras in Mājuli are religious and cultural centers. They communicate cultural and religious philosophies of Sankardav [1449–1568] and Madhavdav [1489–1596] who were Assamese Vaishnavite scholars and social-reformers. Monotheism is practiced in the satras while animal sacrifice and idolatry are rejected. Additionally, as centers of art and culture, traditional forms of music, dance, and mask-making take centerstage at the satras.

Satras are headed by a satradhikar. An integral aspect of a satra is a nāmghar [prayer house], a congregation hall where the name of Lord Govinda is recited by the Vaishnavites [a disciple of Vaishnavism]. Some satras provide basic accommodation and meals, which gives you an opportunity to watch life up close in a satra. [Note: No footwear is allowed at the satras.]

Nāmghar

A nāmghar is associated with religious and cultural life of the indigenous Assamese people. A nāmghar is also the central structure of a satra. In the Assamese language, nāmghar translates to nām [prayer] and ghar [house]. A nāmghar is also a community hall and a center of training for arts and crafts.

My father, along with contributions from a few other members of the community, built a nāmghar opposite my childhood, and his current, home. During the evenings, I remember listening to the music from tals and khols as a group [including my father] practiced gayan-bayan in the nāmghar. From an architectural perspective, nāmghars are usually rectangular in shape with a raised roof on two parallel rows of pillars that run along the length of the nāmghar and aligned along the east-west axis.

Garuda

At one of the nāmghars within a satra, a giant wooden Garuda statue protects the premises. Garuda represents birth and heaven and is the enemy of snakes, a symbol of death and underworld. In Hinduism, Garuda, an eagle-like creature, was the vehicle of god Vishnu. In Buddhism, Garuda is one of the Astasena [eight nonhuman super beings]. Garuda is the national emblem of Thailand and Indonesia and is referred to as Phra Khrut Pha and Garuda Pancasila respectively. In Burma, garudas are called ga-lon, the Japanese call it Karura, and in Mongolia it is the Khangard.

Masks

One of the satras in Mājuli is known for it masks. The satra traces its mask-making tradition to the 17th century. These masks have a base layer made of bamboo, which gives it a structure for the face. Upon the bamboo frame sits layered strips of cloth dipped in soil collected from the banks of the Brahmaputra River. A blend of cow dung and clay is applied to give a mask its necessary shape and contours. Beards and mustaches for the masks are made from jute. Vegetables dyes are used for color. The masks come in three sizes and are used for bhaona, a traditional Assamese theatre form. An interesting aspect of these masks is that they have been redesigned to move with the actor’s jaws, allowing for greater control during a bhaona.

Gayan-Bayan

A gayan-bayan is a devotional performance by the Vaishnavite Assamese. A gayan is the singer and bayan is a musician. The singers play tal, a medium-sized cymbal made of bell metal and used for rhythm or time-measure. The musicians play a khol, a wooden drum that is hung horizontally from their shoulders. The right side of the khol produces a high pitch whereas the left side produces a deep bass sound. The singers stand behind the drummers, swinging their bodies; the drummers play their instruments and dance.

Pxley Extra: The following video is an excerpt of a gayan-bayan performance by the bhakats [monks] of a satra.

Acknowledgements: Video and photo for “Getting There” contributed by BJG. Photo for “Migratory Birds” contributed by BJB.

A Glimpse of Dinjan, Assam

A silent township today, Dinjan played a key role during World War II. However, contributions made by the airfields in Upper Assam—Chabua, Dinjan, Mohanbari, and Sookerating—during World War II have been long forgotten.

In 1942, tea estates were converted into air bases with landing strips. This became a necessity due to the invasion of Burma by Japanese troops whereby China lost its supply line. Uninterrupted supply to China was critical. The U.S. and other Allied leaders agreed to organize an aerial supply effort between Assam, India and Kunming, China.

Along with No. 5 Squadron RAF and No. 10 Group RAF, the following are some of the USAF Squadrons and Groups that were stationed in Dinjan between 1942 and 1945:

  • 11th Bomb Squadron
  • 20th Intelligence Squadron
  • 51st Operations Group
  • 157th Air Refueling Wing
  • 443d Operations Group
  • 513th Air Control Group
  • 427th Special Operations Squadron
  • 1362nd Army Air Force Base Units

The airfield in Dinjan was built with the help of tea estate laborers overseen by the UK’s Royal Air Force. My father, who grew up a few miles from Dinjan, mentioned that his older brother helped coordinate the labor efforts in 1942.

The following is a photo of the China Burma India Theater (CBI) airfield in Dinjan, circa 1945. [Source: United States Army Air Force via National Archives]

Dinjan Airfield ~1945

The following is a recent Google Map view of the airfield in Dinjan.

A visit today to Dinjan and its surrounding areas is a perfect way to honor history and experience Assamese traditions.

En route to Dinjan

Located in Assam, Dinjan is surrounded by rice paddies, tea estates, and Indian defense bases. Many of these estates are over 100 years old. Deciduous tress provide shade to the tea bushes on both sides of the National Highway 15.

The nearest airport is Dibrugarh, approximately 30 miles from Dinjan. [Read more about Dibrugarh as a gateway town.]

Rice paddies near Dibrugarh

Dibrugarh is situated on the banks of the Brahmaputra River, in Assam, India. Daily flights to Dibrugarh are available from major Indian cities.

During WW II, Dibrugarh was used as a transit camp for U.S. evacuees from Burma.

Sir John Berry White, a retired brigadier and civil surgeon of the British Army donated his life savings to start the Berry White Medical School, which later came to be known as the Assam Medical College and Hospitals. This college began operations from an abandoned military hospital that was established by the U.S. Army.

The Brahmaputra River

The mighty Brahmaputra flows north of Dinjan. In 1944, servicemen from the U.S. 330th Airdrome Squadron took a ferry on the Brahmaputra to reach Dinjan. This journey upstream would have taken several days to complete.

A major source for water to the region, the Brahmaputra has also contributed to devastating floods. A very high priority of the entire northeastern region of India is the harnessing of water as a resource.

Tea estate in Dinjan

On an overcast day, laborers pluck tea leaves. About 2-3 leaves and a terminal bud are nipped off during this process of producing high quality tea. The potential to promote and grow tourism in the region is tremendous.

In 1942, laborers from tea estates in and around Dinjan were responsible for building the Dinjan Airfield, which was used as a base for U.S. flights headed to Kunming, China via The Hump. The eastern end of the Himalayan mountain range was called The Hump by Allied pilots of World War II. The pilots flew military transport aircraft from India to China to resupply the Chinese war efforts.

Railway Track Along National Highway 15

A railway track runs along National Highway 15. The nearest railway station from Dinjan is in Tinsukia. In May 1882, the first steam train in the region rolled down the tracks from Dibrugarh to Dinjan. The last steam train ran on these tracks, from Dibrugarh to Tinsukia, in February 1997.

Allied lines of communications in India, Burma, China

The map depicts the Allied lines of communications in India, Burma, and into Kunming in southern China. [Source: United States Military Academy; The World War II Database]

Dinjan Airfield

A restricted area now, several C-47s took off and landed in Dinjan Airfield, which was a principal U.S. base during World War II. Abandoned after World War II, the area is now under protective custody of the Indian Air Force.

My father recalls that most of the U.S. servicemen in Dinjan were "fairly young soldiers... they walked around the villages with beer cans in their hand and shot monkeys that were destroying paddy fields." He added, "There were air raids by the Japanese in Chabua and Dinjan." In 1942, Japanese aircraft bombed Dinjan and Chabua airfields, and also scored hits at Mohanbari and Sookerating.

Dinjan Airfield

Incessant rainfall in the region delayed construction of the Dinjan airfield and tea estate laborers did not have the adequate skills. Moreover, Japanese air attacks scared away the laborers. Construction equipment and supplies took over two weeks to get from Calcutta to Dibrugarh.

Perforated/Pierced Steel Planking - Marston Mat

My father said, "When the Americans were moving in, it used to be loud at night because their big trucks would get stuck in the mud and the engines would roar as the tires spun."

Steel planking was laid down on muddy roads to help vehicles pass through without getting stuck. They were also used in airfield construction. Some of the planking left behind by the U.S. Army found it's way to the nearby homes and used for ventilation.

World War II Comic Strip

A 1943 American newspaper comic strip depicting the U.S. Army in Assam [India] during World War II.

World War II Censor Cover

A World War II censor cover from 1944, which was sent from Dinjan [APO 487], India to Shrub Oak [New York], USA. The United States 443d Troop Carrier Group was deployed in Dinjan when this letter was sent.

Traditional Loom

The villages around Dinjan provides an opportunity to experience Assamese culture and traditions.

Traditional Assamese textile designs are symbolic of its tribes and ethnic groups. The weave designs generally depict traditional Assamese musical instruments, flowers, birds, etc.

Hand weaving is an art form that is disappearing from the villages of Assam. Traditional looms are being replaced with power looms. Rising yarn prices and a proliferation of cheap imitation silk make it difficult for Assamese weavers to earn and sustain a livelihood.

Gamusa

There can’t be any more humble yet magnificent example of Assamese identity as the gamusa [pronounced ga-moo-SA]. A gamusa is rectangular in shape, woven on a traditional Assamese loom with white and red cotton thread.

It is customary to welcome guests with a gamusa, which is draped around her/his neck with love and respect. For guests, the gamusa becomes a souvenir of warmth, kindness, and simplicity for which the Assamese are known.

Community Fishing

When it comes to harvesting a body of water for fish, a village community brings itself together to work in unison. The catch is then shared among the families that took part in the event. Traditional tools such as a jakoi and khaloi are used to catch fish.

Traditional Assamese Household Items

These are miniature versions of traditional Assamese household items. The items are made out of bamboo.

A jakoi is used to trap fish in the shallow ponds or paddy fields of Assam. Once a fish is caught with the help of a jakoi, it is stored in the khaloi. A kula is a winnowing fan used to separate hull [or husk] from rice after a milling process. A saloni is a sieve that can be used to separate the chaff from the kernel. A dola is a tray that can be used to store items or to sort through rice and remove any foreign objects like fragments of stones. The khorahi is a storage basket also used on occasion to wash rice.

The Opportunity and Possibilities

Dinjan played a critical role during World War II. Few are aware of the challenges that existed then and how they were overcome—incessant monsoons, malaria, basic accommodations and rations, limited lines of communication, and more.

A visit to the region, coupled with an opportunity to view the China Burma India (CBI) Theater airfield, can offer an unparalleled perspective of how life was between 1942-1945 for the young men and women of the U.S. and other Allied leaders.

Dinjan should be recognized as an important historical marker that provides an opportunity to reflect upon the sacrifices made, which can help us build a world that future generations can be proud of. Additionally, the possibilities of sightseeing and educational travel programs to Dinjan, as well as tours by leading historians with local guides, can contribute to the growth of the region and help it gain national and international prominence.

Pxley Extra:

Interview with Capt. Abel Kessler, U.S. Army 441st Anti-Aircraft Artillery Battalion, who was posted in Chabua, a few miles from Dinjan. A fascinating account!

[Source: The Veterans History Project, American Folklife Center]

Related Dinjan resources:

Henry Byroade Oral History Interview
Source: Harry S. Truman Library & Museum

U.S. Army in World War II
Source: The Public’s Library and Digital Archive

Roberts, David Neal (Oral history)
Source: Imperial War Museums

Severson, Bob (Oral history)
Source: Imperial War Museums

Private Papers of Mrs V Downing
Source: Imperial War Museums

The Army Air Forces in World War II, Volume One [PDF] Source: Office of Air Force History Washington, D.C., U.S. Department of Defense

Over the Hump to China, by John T. Correll
Source: Air Force Magazine

Elmer Halfmann’s WWII Experiences, as related to Mitchell H. Halfmann
Source: Angelo State University

Uncle Bill’s WWII, by Joy Neal Kidney
Source: joynealkidney.com

Merrill’s Marauders (February-May 1944)
Source: United States. War Department. General Staff · 1945 [Google Books]

Letter from Jacob S. Fassett (Hostel Manager, Dinjan; CNAC 1942 – 1945)
Source: cnac.org

CHINA – BURMA – INDIA: Remembering the Forgotten Theater of World War II
Source: cbi-theater.com